Vertical gardening is a specific and innovative way of urban gardening, best suitable for small places. It is mainly established on various walls and roofs particularly for decorating purpose in various styles. The walls are covered with suitable small plants, climbers and runners. It helps in the improvement of physical and aesthetic look as well as brings a beautiful and environment friendly atmosphere. With the increase in high rise building in urban areas, big hotels, industrial building, multistroy building etc. the air pollution is at its tremendous stage, specially in big cities. One of the biggest cause of poor environment in cities are heavy use of air conditioners in residental areas and big buildings. Vertical gardening plays a significance role in curing the poor environmental conditions.

Vertical garden on building wall

The establishment of vertical garden is done in both the interior as well as exterior part of the building. The modern concept of vertical gardening is getting more and more amazing, esthetic and beneficial for environment and human health. Even any kind of concrete or glass can turn into real vertical garden, became possible making a smooth, transition for fresh, healthy urban green environment. There are different situations at outdoor as well as where green patches in the form of vertical walls can be created. These green walls can be easily created in apartment, public buildings, airports, flyover, pillar of bridges, universities etc.

Advantages of vertical gardens

There are numberous benefits of vertical gardens. Here is the list of some of the advantages of vertical gardens:-

Types of vertical garden

There are three different types of vertical gardens. Let's discuss one by one:-


1.) Green facade


In green facade type the principle front of a building that faces towards street or open space is beautified with the help of plants. In this system plants are growing in ground or in elevated containers where they are watered and fertilized.


2.) Living green walls


This system works on the pre vegetated panels. Vertically structured wall or frame provides stand to vertical modules or planted blankets. Such panels are made up of plastic, synthetic fiber etc. Plants best suitable for this system is Ferns, syngonuim, Asperagus, Rheo discolour, Pendilanthus etc.


3.) Modular green walls


Modular green walls are made by the help of regular polythene material. These are durable and attractive in nature. It is very easy to install. It provides quick solution the for the establishment of the vertical garden. Now-a-days are plastic bottles are being used as containers for growing plants in vertical garden. These plastic bottles containers are fixed in the on a panel.

Plants suitable for vertical gardens

1.) Indoor green walls/for shaded areas

2. For outdoor green walls

Structure and components of green wall system

The vertical garden is mainly established at rainy stations, airports, public buildings, pillars of bridges, street scapes, hospitals, offices etc. The selection of plant materials should be done the basis of availability of sunlight, wind and direction. 


The different components used in the establishment of vertical walls are front panel, bottom drainage tray, stabilizers and side penels if required. The system should be strong enough to bear the load of plants, containers, media, watering system etc.


Design:- The design of vertical garden completely depends on where it is going to be constructed. You should also have to look at the local and micro climatic conditions of the area, wind velocity, sunlight hours, etc. Water source, water quality (TDS and pH of water) and drainage system to assure a successful system.


Growing media:- The media used for the growing of plants in vertical garden should be light weight, having good water holding capacity, porous, fertile and neutral in pH. The combination of cocopeat and vermicompost are best the growing media used in vertical gardening because it fullfil all the above mentioned requirements. However, light soil can also be used for it.

Plant nutrition and irrigation management for vertical gardening

Automated drip irrigation system is mainly used in the vertical gardens. Nutrients and water are mixed together are supplied through drippers. It is espically designed for the minimizing the use of irrigation water and nutrients. The normal water consumption per day varies from 0.5 to 20 liters as per the sun exposure. For the regulation of water supply, water meter is required to monitor the amount of irrigation water.

Artificial light requirement

It is mainly required in indoor gardens and a pre requisite component for the for the growing of plants. It requires 300 to 500 lux of light for indoor plants. The placement of green wall be done as that it will get light as per the requirement of plants.

Diseases and pests

Regular inspection should be done of green walls. As the infestation starts appearing of diseases and pests proper amount of systemic pesticides or fungicides should be used on a regular interval.