A single papaya tree produces 40 to 60 fruits per season. Tolerable to papaya ringspot virus.
Writer: Saurabh Upadhyay
Now-a-days papaya farming has became a very safe and profitable agribusiness. You need to select a high yielding variety and a practice scheduled scientific management.
This article discusses about how to grow papaya and discover the techniques to get huge profitability from its farming?
Papaya, Pawpaw, Papita is a tropical fruit, riches in vitamin C. It is very delicious in taste and highly used as medicinal ingredient in India. Papaya is mainly used as vegetable, fruit, processing of dry leaves and papin production at immature stage.
Papaya is originated from Costa Rica and South Mexico. It is cultivated all around the globe. India is the largest papaya producer in the world followed by Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria and Indonesia.
Papaya farming is easy. People mainly like to sow it in their kitchen gardens. However, for getting high production and high profitability you can also cultivate it in polyhouse or net house especially, the dwarf varieties like red ladies are sown in polyhouses.
Botany of papaya
From the botanical as well as the horticultural point of view papaya is an interesting plant. The papaya (carica papaya) belongs to family papayaceae. To grow papaya successfully, it is necessary to have some basic knowledge of the botany of the plant.
The sex system of papaya is very complex. Sometimes it is also results in slow down the plant yield. Papaya plant is mainly available in three, different sex, male, female and hermaphrodite (bisexual flower) and also some other complex forms. Generally, male plants do not bear any fruits. Mainly, female and hermaphrodite plants bear fruits. However, female plant bears small fruits as compared to hermaphrodite plants. The seeds mainly preferred to sow, is the mixture of a hermaphrodite and female plants, so that, the pollination will occur successfully.
Varieties of papaya suitable for Indian context
There are lots of high yielding varieties of papaya has developed yet in India and other countries. Here is the list of some of the high yielding varieties of papaya.
The varieties of papaya are divided into two groups:-
i) Dioecious:- It produces both male and female plants separately.
ii) Gynodioecious:- It produces female and hermaphrodite plants together.
So, here is the list of ten most loved and high productive varieties of papaya:-
·Red lady (Taiwan 786)
Soil and climatic requirement for Red lady papaya farming
Papaya is an evergreen plant. It requires a soil having high fertility and good drainage facilities.
A well drained sandy loam soil riched in soil organic matter content is best suitable for its farming. The optimum pH of soil required for its farming is 5.5 to 7.5.
Papaya grows well in tropical climate. It requires warm and humid climate and can be cultivated up to an elevation of about 1000 meters. Temperature below 10°C mess the process of maturity and ripening of fruits and to a certain extent the growth and setting of fruits.
Ideal season for papaya farming
In India papaya plants are mostly cultivated in monsoon and spring and autumn season. The best month for its sowing is June to July that is monsoon season, October to November that is the autumn season and February to March that is a spring season. It should not be sown in mild winter because papaya plant cannot tolerate heavy frost. Heavy rainfall also causes damage to the papaya plant. Plastic covering material should be provided to the plant during rainy season.
Irrigation requirement for red lady papaya cultivation
Irrigation requirement of papaya depends on the soil type, climatic conditions, soil moisture etc. Young papaya plant requires more moisture then the old plant because of older plant slowdown its vegetative growth. It should be provided irrigation water once or twice to the seedling of papaya. However, fruit bearing plants should be irrigated within every 15 days.
Propagation of papaya
Papaya is normally propagated by seed. Since, it is a cross-pollinated crop the plant raised from seeds has a mixed inheritance which makes them highly variable in performance. However, plant tissue culture technique is also used to develop disease free and high yielding papaya seedlings but it is mainly used for research purposes to develop high yielding varieties.
Land preparation for papaya
Land should be prepared well, make it free from weeds, stones and plant debris.
For the cultivation of papaya there, needs a pit of dimension 50cm×50cm×50cm. Add well rotten FYM and organic matter in adequate amount for its better growth and development. Once, the flowering starts appearing in the plants, remove 90% of male plants from the field.
Manures and fertilizers requirement for red lady Papaya
Soil should have the proper amount of organic matter content for its successful farming. Application of 20 kg well decomposed FYM mixed with adequate amount of NPK should be given to each plant.
Disease & Pests of Papaya
Stem rot, anthracnose, powdery mildew and damping off are the most common diseases occur in the papaya crop.
Control- Application of Sulfur Guard Bio-fungicide, copper fungicides are best for its effective treatment.
Insect-pest of papaya crops are spider mites, aphids, stem borer, fruitfly and grasshopper.
Control- Destroy all the affected plant debris. Application of Neem oil and Redox Rephos is the best organic way to protect plants from various diseases.
Marketplace for papaya in India
Papaya is one of the most consumed fruit in India. The local fruit markets and Mandis are good enough to its selling in the reasonable price. Best quality of papaya can also be sold in supermarkets or via e-commerce platforms. There are lots of online platforms like exportersindia.com, smartcrop, agribuzz, digital Mandi India etc. from where you can sell your produce.
From where can I buy red lady papaya seed?
Though, Red ladies variety of papaya is new to Indian context. Sometimes it is difficult to get it from local seeds shops, especially in small towns.
You can buy it from online platforms like amazon.in, Flipkart, India mart, nursery live, Snapdeal etc. It is easily available in these online portals in right prices.