Gladiolus is mainly used for interior decoration, gardening and for making bouquets.
Writer: Mr. Suraj kumar
Gladiolus is a leading cut flower in India as well as of world. It is mostly liked for its majestic spikes which contains delicate, elegant and attractive florets. It contains magnificent inflorescence having a wide range of colours. Its colour is from self or bicolour with it without central mark varying from white to darkest crimson. Gladiolus is mainly used for interior decoration, gardening and for making bouquets.
In India gladiolus was introduced by Britishers in 16 to 17th century. It is grown in various parts of India. It was believed that it can be only grown in hilly area but later was found suitable for growing it in plain also.
Recommended varieties of gladiolus
Here is a list of some varieties of gladiolus best suitable for Indian context.
Soil requirement for gladiolus farming
For growing gladiolus successfully it requires well fertile and well drained soil. It is grown in heavy soil but the firstly the texture of heavy soil should be improved by adding organic matter and sand for better production of gladiolus. Neutral soil is best suitable for its farming.
Climatic requirement for gladiolus farming
Gladiolus can be grown in wide range of climate. The climatic requirement should be adjusted in such a way that the crop can enjoy weather conditions throughout its growing, flowering, corn and cornel production period. The ideal temperature needed for its growth is ranges between 15 to 30 degree celsius. Rain causes heavy damage during flowering stage.
It requires open sunny day for its better thrivness. It requires about 12 hours of sunlight with high intensity. The gladiolus field should be protected against strong winds by planting hedge or wind break.
Season of planting
Gladiolus is a all round the year demanding crop. There are various experiments has been conducting to make it possible to grow all round the year. However, the suitable time for its sowing in plain area is from July to December. In hilly areas it is planted from March to April and flowering starts from June to September. The variety should be selected carefully because some varieties may not produce quality spikes under high temperature.
Land preparation for gladiolus
2 to 3 times of ploughing should be done for land preparation. The soil should be sterilized well before planting. It is recommended to cover the whole by covering black polythene for sterilization. 20 tons of farmyard manure per acre should be supplied to the soil before 20 to 25 days of planting. 40 kg of P2O5 and 40 kg of K2O should also be applied before planting the crop.
Plantation method of gladiolus
Well rested corms of a size of more 5 cm should be used for its planting. It is generally planted in flat beds at the distance 30*20 cm. The depth of sowing should be 7 cm. In one acre about 60,000 corms can be planted with this distance.
Nutrient management in gladiolus farming
160 kg Nitrogen per acre should be applied in two splits. Half of the nitrogen should be supplied at 3 leaf stage and of the amount of amount of nitrogen should be supplied at 6 leaf stage. Timely application of organic manures should be done for better production.
Irrigation requirement for gladiolus farming
Irrigation on gladiolus totally depends on the soil types, weather conditions and rainfall. However, in sandy soil is requires irrigation with a interval of 7 to 10 days.
Weed management in gladiolus farming
Weeding and hoeing is pre requisite activity for the successful growing of gladiolus. Manual weeding is generally practiced in India which constantly increases the cost of cultivation. Weeds compete with crops for nutrient and sunlight that cause poor yield of main crop. In gladiolus four to five times of weeding in required for the successful crop. It found that herbicide Basalin @ 2.5 L per ha is effective for controlling weeds without effecting corm and cormel production.
Harvesting of gladiolus
It takes about 40 to 120 days to produce spikes in gladiolus. At least four basal leaf should be retained on gladiolus plant at the time of harvesting to ensure the better growth of corms and cornel.
Storage of corms
Proper storage of corms and cornels should be done to ensure best pricing in market. Corms should be stored in single layers in wooden tray that have wire bottom. Corms should be treated with appropriate fungicide before storage. The optimum temperature of the storage of corn is 4 to 10°C