Tuberose is scientifically known as Polianthes tuberosa and its family is Amrylladaceae.
Writer: Mr. Suraj kumar
Introduction to Tuberose farming
Tuberose is known by various names in different areas, Rajni Gandha in Hindi and Bengali, Gul-e-chari, Gul-e-shabab in Urdu, Nishi gandhi in Malyalam and Sem pangi in Tamil. However, scientifically known as Polianthes tuberosa and its family is Amrylladaceae.
Tuberose has long, narrow light leaves having a plant height of 25 to 30 cm. The flowering stalk is 75 to 100 cm long, having 25 to 50 florets per spike. The flower of tuberose is waxy, white, and highly fragrant. The flowers are of two types, single semi double or double flower produced on a long spike which open from the base to the top. Single varieties are named after place where it is growing i.e, Mexican single, Calcutta single, Banglore single, Coimbatore single etc.
The flower bloom during summer, rainy and autumn. It is a important cut flower of summer and autumn. It is a important cut flower of summer and rainy season in India. Tuberose are used as cut flower as well as loose flowers which are used in making of garland, braceletes or hair do.
Commercial use of Tuberose flower
Single white flowers are highly fragrant, from which valuable essential oil is extracted which is sold on premium price. The oil is rich in geraniol, nerol, benzyl alchol, eugenol, benzote and methyl anthhranilate. Due to presence of these compounds flower emit a delight fragance and are good source of tuberose essential oil.
Area and production of Tuberose
Tuberose is commercially grown in France, Spain, South Africa, Israel, New Zeland, USA.
If we talk of Indian context, it is commercially grown in various parts. It is grown widely in West Bengal, Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and in some parts of Punjab and Haryana.
The total area under tuberose farming in India is estimated around 12,000 hectare.
Recommended varieties for Tuberose farming
Following are the best recommended varieties of tuberose in Indian context. Here the varities are categoried into single and double flowered
Soil requirement for Tuberose farming
Tuberose is a bulbous plant hence, it thrives well in loamy and sandy soil. The optimum pH required for its farming is 6.5 to 7.5. The soil should be of good aeration and good drainage facility. It has been observed that it thrives well in pH range 8.2 to 8.3. It can be also grown well in unproductive soil affected by salinity and alkalinity.
Climatic requirement for Tuberose farming
Tuberose is grown well in wide range of climate, temperature ranges between 20 to 30 degree celsius. Basically it a crop of mild climate.For its better growth and high productivity, it is grown in mild temperature of about 30 degree celsius with ideal humidity. However, temperature should be less than 40 degree celsius and more than 5 degree celsius.
Planting time of tuberose in India
The planting time of tuberose varies from one place to other place in India. In east India it is planted between February to March and in north India it is planted between March to April. However, in south India it is planted between July to August.. However, in some places like Banglore it is planted all round the year.
Field preparation for Tuberose farming
2 to 3 times of ploughing should be done for the land preparation for tuberose. 40 to 50 tons of well decomposed farmyard manure per hectare should be added to the field before planting. Application of @ 100 kg of Nitrogen/ha, @ 400 kg of Phosphorus/ha and @ 200 kg of potassium/ha should be mixed well during land preparation. 8 kg thymate should also be applied per ha for the protection from nematodes.
Bulb selection and planting of Tuberose
Tuberose is mainly propagated by bulb. The bulb size of 2 to 3 cm is best recommended for raising healthy crop. After land preparation, the field is divided into plots leaving space for water channel and walking path. The ideal spacing for planting bulb should be maintained between 20*2 0 cm and the depth of sowing should be maintained between 4 to 5 cm. After planting, lightly irrigate the field.
Nutrient management for Tuberose farming
It is a heavy fedder crop. It responds well to the applied manures and fertilizers. Application of 200 kg N, 400 kg P2O5 and 200 kg of K2O should be applied for its quality flower and bulb production. Half dose of NPK should be supplied before planting whereas remaining amount should be supplied after one month of planting. The dose of nutrients should be increased or decreased depending upon the soil testing report.
Irrigation requirement for Tuberose farming
Tuberose crop requires adequate amount of irrigation water for its growth and quality flower production. A light irrigation should be provided just after planting. Too much amount of water at the sprouting stage cause bad result in bulb yield. The frequency of irrigation depends upon the soil type, water condition and growth stage of plants. However, weekly irrigation should be provided during April to June.
Harvesting, Packing and Marketing of Tuberose
The flower of tuberose is mainly used for two purposes, as loose flower and as cut flower so, harvesting should be done accordingly. For loose flower harvesting should be done on daily basis whereas for the cut flower the spike are cut from the base so that longer spike are available. Harvesting activity should be only done on early morning and evening time. The stage of harvesting of tuberose also depends upon the distance of travel. For local market and immediate purpose spikes are harvested when two-three rows of basal flower are open. However, for distant market, spikes are harvested when basal flower is just going to open.
For the packing of loose flowers generally bamboo baskets are used. Flowers are sold by weight.
The quality of cut spikes are judge according to the length of spikes, length of flowering zone, number of florets and quality of florets. To avoid any injury to flowers and buds, the whole bundles of flower is wrapped in soft white tissue paper. For increment in harvesting of the flower and increment in quality of cut spikes a holding solution of 2% sucrose + 300 ppm aluminium sulphate should be used.
Yield of Tuberose
Flower production depends upon the climatic conditions, soil types, agronomic practices, variety etc. The yield of flower is noted different among various parts of India. Under optimum conditions single tuberose yield is about 5,00,000 flower spikes/ha or 10.5 tons/ha of loose flower. The production is high in first two years and in third year the production is comparatively low.
Marketplace for Tuberose
Tuberose has a great marketplace in India and abroad. It is used in manufacturing of various products like oil, mouth freshener, insence stick, cosmetic products, beverage etc. Kolkata (West Bengal), Bangalore, Andra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu are the best marketplace for it in India. You can also sell your produce through India mart, Amazon, Flipkart and other e-commerce platforms. A huge quantity of tuberose is also exported from India to Sri Lanka, Japan, Nijiria, Saudi Arabia etc.